Sunday 30 October, 1.45pm until 3.15pm, Students' Union
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) was formed in 1946, in the aftermath of the Second World War, on the belief that a lasting peace depended on educational, scientific, and cultural relations between nations as well as political and economic ones. In 1972, following the flooding of Venice and Florence, and with the temples at Abu Simbels in similar danger, UNESCO published its ‘Convention concerning the Protection of the World’s Cultural and Natural Heritage’. Its guiding principle is that the international community has a duty to help conserve the world’s cultural and natural heritage for future generations. Accordingly, UNESCO established a list of World Heritage Sites of outstanding universal cultural or natural value. There are currently 911 sites on the list, in 151 countries.
Nevertheless, World Heritage status is not always welcomed by those directly affected. In Djenne in Mali, residents long to replace their 150-year-old mud-brick houses with modern homes, but their proximity to the UNESCO-listed Great Mosque, the largest mud-brick structure in the world, means any reconstruction of local housing cannot substantially alter the original. Similar conflicts exist on the Island of St Louis in Senegal, the island of Lamu in Kenya, and the entire island of Mozambique off the coast of the nation by the same name. While UNESCO listing may be good for tourism, residents complain of being stuck in a museum. It is increasingly common for cultural heritage to be used as a reason to block or halt developmental projects such as dams and mines. In Rosia Montana in Romania, plans to open Europe’s largest gold deposit, with an estimated 10 million ounces, worth more than $12 billion at today’s price, is under threat from NGOs seeking world heritage status for settlements dating from Roman times. This is despite overwhelming local support for the mine, in an area devastated by long-term industrial decline and recent economic contraction. How far should the preservation of the past be allowed to impede future development?
One of the ironies of archaeology is that it is often development itself that reveals archaeological treasures in the process of disturbing the landscapes that contain them. Archaeologists in China were able to improve vastly their understanding of human history - the origins of human beings, the transition to agriculture, the development of complex societies and writing systems – thanks to the disruption caused by the construction of the Three Gorges Dam. Might a compromise be possible between conservation and development? Or if we must choose between them, who should decide which comes first?
architect and planner; editor, Connecting England: a programme for regional development
|Dr Tiffany Jenkins|
writer and broadcaster; author, Keeping Their Marbles: how treasures of the past ended up in museums and why they should stay there
professor of art history, University of Essex; author, Tyranny of Taste: politics of British architecture and design, 1550-1960
consultant architect-planner; author, Conservation and Sustainability in Historic Cities
interim director, European Animal Research Campaign Centre; government affairs, Association of the British Pharmaceutical Industry
With the price of gold likely to break $2000 an ounce, and with rising sovereign debt, can Romania afford to choose eco-friendly tourism over the one chance locals have of saving their livelihoods and boosting the country's economy?Kirk Leech, Huffington Post, 2 October 2011
Once the jewel of the Mediterranean, parts of Beirut are now in a state of shambles. Decades of civil war and Israel's bombardment five years ago has left some buildings pockmarked with bullet holes, others just bombed-out shells. But the buildings that survived bullets and bombs are now under threat from the wrecking ball.Rebecca Collard, National (UAE), 17 September 2011
Plans to develop Liverpool's waterfront could threaten its status as a World Heritage Site, it has been claimed.BBC News, 13 July 2011
Teams in Afghanistan scramble to save artifacts before a Chinese company starts mining work at Mes Aynak, an area filled with the ruins of 5th century Buddhist monasteries.Alex Rodriguez, Los Angeles Times, 12 July 2011
Lijiang, one of the better known trading centres along the Ancient Tea Horse Road, and already a World Heritage site, is embroiled in controversy due to its overdevelopment. Located in the Yunnan province, the main stretch of the old town is now home to a long strip of discos, pumping out ethno-techno beats to hordes of tourists.Chris Gill, Arts Newspaper, 24 June 2011